Public policy

The US government system comprises arms such as legislative, executive, judicial, and a federal structure.  The legislature/Congress branch is made up of the Senate and House of Representatives. The House is a representative unit of constituents that is elected after two years. The Senate has more freedom than the House and can freely debate and filibuster. Congress constitutes laws and allocates funds for various government programs. On the other hand, the Executive arm implements the policies crafted by Congress. It comprises President, Vice President, the federal bureaucracy, and the White House members. The President is responsible for implementation, formulation, adoption, and agenda-setting of policies. The President also speaks on behalf of the country and instructs the media and the public. The White House Staff and Executive Office of the President advise the President to develop and implement policies. The federal bureaucracy consisting of agencies and offices of the cabinet enforces laws on specialized sectors and forms most executive branches. The Judiciary includes the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, federal district courts, and special courts. The judicial system interprets laws and pronounces rulings on cases that affect the public. Moreover, the public elects some leaders into the government system and set edges for policymakers. Other policymakers are the federal system that neutralizes the power of the three branches of the US government. The national and state government can work collectively (cooperative federalism) or independently (dual federalism) to implement public policies. Other policymakers within the US government include interest groups and non-profit organizations. Google and Sierra Club are among the interest groups that contribute economically to public policy or lawmakers’ lobbying. Non-profit organizations such as tax-exempt make and influence public policy by providing goods and services to the public (Oregon State University, n.d.). The media engage in policymaking by empowering the people with political information and by priming.


Oregon State University. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Key actors and the policy process in state and local governments – State and local government and politics: Prospects for sustainability. Open Textbooks – Oregon State University, Open Educational Resources Unit.

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