PSC 202

Paper details:

CHAPTER 1
MULTICULTURAL COMMUNITIES:
CHALLENGES FOR LAW
ENFORCEMENT
Chapter Summary
Chapter 1 presents a variety of challenges associated with cultural diversity and its
impact on law enforcement. Diversity can impact the nature and perception of crime
itself and directly or indirectly have an effect on the methods that law enforcement
officers use to respond to and interact with citizens. Chapter 1 also discusses police
prejudice and bias, both implicit and explicit, and their relationship to police work and
decision-making.
Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Discuss the impact of diversity on law enforcement and the corresponding need for
community policing outreach programs.
• Understand past and current reactions to the U.S. multicultural society.
• Summarize key demographic trends related to minority and foreign-born populations
in the United States and globally.
• Provide an understanding of aspects of immigration to the United States.
• Define “culture” and “ethnocentrism” and discuss their relevance to law
enforcement.
• List the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity as well as generational
differences among immigrant and ethnic groups.
• Apply the concepts of stereotyping, prejudice, and implicit bias to police work.
• Describe ways that law enforcement leaders and managers can promote bias-free
policing in a multicultural society.
Chapter Outline
1. Introduction
2. The Interface of Law Enforcement and Diverse Communities
a. Community Policing Outreach: Breaking Down Mutual Stereotypes
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3. Attitudes about the Multicultural Society: Past and Present
a. The Melting Pot and the Mosaic
b. Changing Population
c. Minority Populations
4. Global Migration, Refugees and Immigrants in the United State
a. The Foreign-Born Population in the United States
b. European Immigration
c. Distinction between Immigrants and Refugees
d. Unauthorized Immigrants and Related Terminology
e. Asylum Seekers
f. Battered Immigrant Women
g. Fear of Deportation, Law Enforcement and ICE
h. Undocumented Immigrants: The “U” Visa and Safe Reporting of Crimes
4. Culture and Its Relevance to Law Enforcement
a. The Definition of Culture
b. Mini Case Studies and Culture Practices: Does Culture Matter?
5. Dimensions of Diversity
a. Primary Dimensions of Diversity
b. Secondary Dimensions of Diversity
c. Further Diversity Within and Among Ethnic Groups
d. General Distinctions among Generations of Immigrants
e. Intersection of Diversity Factors
6. Prejudice and Bias in Law Enforcement
a. Prejudice and Bias
b. How Prejudice Influences People
c. Implicit Bias
7. Police Leadership in a Multicultural Society
a. Challenging Others’ Expressions of Prejudice
b. Mandating Change
c. Image and Professionalism with Diverse Communities
8. Summary
ANSWER: How can community policing outreach programs help to break down mutual stereotypes held by both police officers and community members? Give examples of programs of which you are aware.


CHAPTER 2
THE CHANGING LAW ENFORCEMENT
AGENCY: A MICROCOSM OF SOCIETY
Chapter Summary
Chapter 2 analyzes the demographic changes within law enforcement agencies and the
reactions to diversity in the workplace as they pertain to law enforcement. The chapter
provides data on women, gay men, and lesbians in law enforcement. Its content covers
what chief executives and management need to do in order to provide a safe
environment for employees from all backgrounds.
Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Identify how the ethnic, racial, gender, and lifestyle composition of law
enforcement agencies is changing in the United States.
2. Define racism and understand the steps organizational managers and supervisors
can take to identify and control prejudicial conduct by employees.
3. Describe methods for defusing conflicts within the organization and community
related to issues of gender, sexual orientation, race, and ethnicity.
4. Explain the history of women in law enforcement, the issues confronting them,
and how support and mentoring programs help them make transitions into the
workplace.
5. Define the LGBTQ and gender identity.
6. Explain how law enforcement chief executives must convey zero tolerance for
discrimination based on sexual orientation.
7. Explain the role of police department leadership in providing a workplace
environment that is inclusive of all employees.
Chapter Outline
1. Introduction
2. Changing Workforce
a. Law Enforcement Diversity: A Microcosm of Society
b. Local Police Departments
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c. Sheriffs’ Offices
3. Racism within Law Enforcement Workforce
a. Defusing Racially and Culturally Rooted Conflicts in the Workplace
b. Conflict Resolution Tips
c. Departmental General Order for Control of Prejudicial Conduct
d. Police Organizations
e. Assignments Based on Diversity
4. Women in Law Enforcement
a. Women in the Workforce
b. Number of Women in Law Enforcement
c. Workplace Issues
d. Mentor and Informal Networking Programs for Women
e. The Transition of Women into Law Enforcement
5. LGBTQ Employees in Law Enforcement
a. Policy versus Practice
b. Recruitment
c. Changing Attitudes
d. Differences in Treatment of LGBTQ Officers
e. The Transition of LGBTQ Individuals into Law Enforcement
f. Discrimination and Harassment against LGBTQ Enforcement Officers
g. Potential Consequences of Discrimination and Harassment in the
Workplace
h. Statutes and Company Policy Pertaining to Discrimination Based on
Sexual Orientation
i. Training on LGBTQ Issues
6. Commitment, Leadership, and Management in the Diverse Workforce
a. The Role of the Chief Executive
b. Community Relations and Support
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c. Managing Change Processes during Transitions
7. Summary
8. Discussion Questions and Issues

Three Scenarios:
To further reinforce the idea that the growing diversity in our population has
relevance to officers and other law enforcement personnel in their day-to-day work on
the streets as well as in the workplace. Write suggestions for action to follow each scenarios.


Procedure for discussion and suggestions for action follow the three scenarios.
a. The Cartoon: An African American officer complains to his shift supervisor
that posted on one of the main bulletin boards in the squad room is a cartoon
caricature with his name under it. The picture depicts a black male with a
bone drawn through his nose. The caption under the picture thanked the
officer for his willingness to “model the new department headgear.” This
cartoon has been up for at least a day and everyone passes it on their way in
and out of the main room. Therefore, at least a couple of supervisors have
seen this cartoon.
What should happen?

b. Stereotypes and Suspicion: A call comes over dispatch that a security guard at
a shopping mall in a predominantly white neighborhood has seen four
Hispanic males. The security guard reports that they are gang members
because they are all wearing matching leather jackets and red ball caps. He
reports that they have just opened and closed their car trunk and are now
entering the mall. The security guard notifies the merchants, some of whom
immediately begin closing their stores. You are the officer in the vicinity of
the mall who responds to the call just as the juveniles are leaving the mall and
are heading toward their car. In the meantime, several merchants continue to
be anxious about the “gang members,” leaving their stores closed.
What should happen?

c. Relations among Community Groups: You are a police officer in an agency
that has been involved in community-oriented policing for several years. You
are working in a neighborhood where there has been conflict between Korean
Americans and African Americans. You have been summoned to a Korean
American store where the Korean clerk has made a citizen’s arrest on an
African American youth for petty theft. A group of African Americans has
gathered to protest the arrest. They are angry, but they are not hostile to you
and your backup officer. There are several ways you could approach this
multicultural community problem, and some of the ways would probably
ignite the situation more than necessary. What do you think is the best way to
handle the situation (i.e., with tact and sensitivity), given the animosity
between the two groups?
What should happen?

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