post should be, at a minimum, 400 words
Not every commonly practiced scientific theory and principle is based in scientific fact. First, write down five basic personality traits or skills that apply to yourself. Then, feel your head; start with the front of your scalp and circle on the chart any bumps or depressions on the left or right side. Then work your fingers back, covering the middle, down by the ears, at the back of your head, and so on. Now, review these phrenology charts: https://cerebromente.org.br/n01/frenolog/frenmap.htm; https://neurocritic.blogspot.com/2016/11/how-did-gall-identify-his-27-faculties.html. What traits do the phrenology charts state you ought to possess (areas of bumps) or not possess (depressions)? Compare these to the list you made originally about yourself.
Nature-or-nurture thinking about intelligence, and use of “scientific” methods such as phrenology (see pgs. 96-97), can actually be prejudice in disguise as science, as phrenology historically upheld prejudicial standards about personality traits of races and sexes, with little to no validity. How can the interactionist approach be used as a basis for arguing against discriminatory practices? Why is it important to establish. You may need to do some outside research on the history of phrenology, and thinking about discrimination and socio-economical differences, for this topic – your textbook doesn’t provide all of the necessary material.