Generally, as a location of Mongolia in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude, its climate influenced by the Westerlies. The Westerlies are bringing most of air moisture from distant Atlantic Ocean with partial contribution from North Seas (Natsagdorj L, 1980), (Tuvdendorj, D & Myagmarjav, B, 1985), (Dagvadorj, D et al., 1994; Mijiddorj, R, 2000). Some scientists have considered that Mongolia is located in the triangle of the Westerlies, the East Asian Monsoon and Indian Monsoon (MEGDM, 2009, Sato et al. 2004). But, air moisture flow for Mongolia from the Pacific and Indian oceans has not yet officially reported (Jambaajamts, S, 1989). Contribution in supply of air moisture for Mongolia from seas in Pacific and Indian ocean areas has not yet been reported and its direct impact is questionable as discussed above. The moisture transport along the southwesterly wind of the Asian summer monsoon has difficulty reaching Mongolia as a monthly/seasonal mean perspective. However, eastern Mongolia and northeast China are situated on the border area between westerly wind moisture transport by mid latitude synoptic cyclones and southerly wind moisture transport by Asian summer monsoon (Sato et al. 2004).
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Extremely dry air causes a strong radiative cooling of the surface and temperature regime in winter in most part of Mongolia controlled by high pressure, including the stable so-called Siberia-Mongolian High (SMH) with short period interruption due to infrequent cyclonic activities (Badarch, N, 1969; Tsegmid, Sh, 1969 ; Natsagdorj, L. & Gomboluudev, P, 2018). During the SMH, in the areas of depressions like Murun and Ulaangom where without air exchange has extreme cold temperature (from -40C to -50C), sometimes it recorded lower than -50C (in Tosontsengel). The Mongolian High (by Natsagdorj) centered on Great Lakes Depression in Mongolia (Badarch, N, 1971) and its frequency is 35%. During the period of Mongolian High, air pressure reaches to 1054 GPa, and dominated clear, stable weather in winter throughout the country. In winter, due to the predominance of anticyclonic weather, the air temperature depends mainly on the radiation conditions, and the air cools over the underlying surface.
During the warm season, due to the conventional process, tropical air mass moves to the north from the south. The cyclonic air masses prevailing in the summer three months. The subtropical air masses of continental origin which are active throughout the summer, and cause hot weather. So that, in summer, the whole country area controlled by the low pressure cyclonic system (Badarch, N, 1971). Any slight alteration in intensity of cyclonic activities’ trajectories would have direct impact on precipitation patterns in most parts of the territory of Mongolia (Murzaev, E.M, 1952), (Badarch, N, 1969). The average air pressure in summer is 770-920 gPa.
– In terms of the monsoon, there are different point of view within the scientists, still questionable. Some scientists; Russian climatologist Voikov (1880), Berg (1925), Namnandorj (1963), Shagdar (1967), Badarch, (1971) consider that the transporting humid air with Pacific monsoon reaches to eastern part of Mongolia through the Khyangan mountains. Its evidence is the amount of precipitation in the Numrug and Khalkhgol river basins more than surrounding areas (Natsagdorj, L. & Gomboluudev, P, 2018). Sato et al (2014) noted that ‘eastern Mongolia is situated on the border area between westerly wind moisture transport by mid latitude synoptic cyclones and southerly wind moisture transport by Asian summer monsoon’ (Sato T, 2004). But, Jambaajamts (1989) explained that is not effect of the Pacific monsoon, that is associated with the topography effect; the reason of the more precipitation around this area is the air moisture condensation by created the air uplifts to the mountain slope in Khayngan mountain range (Jambaajamts, S, 1989). (Murzaev, E.M, 1952).
In the winter half year, 50-60% of the air masses arriving have Arctic origin (SMH),
Spatial Distributions of Main Climatic Parameters
Regional Differences in Sunshine Duration
A remarkable feature of Mongolia’s climate is the number of clear, sunny days, an average of 230-260 days of sunshine annually. The duration of sunshine varies between 2,600-3,300 h a year in the country. The topography can significantly diversify the spatial pattern except the latitude of location, e.g., higher sunshine duration are measured in the mountains than in the depressions and river basin valleys. The highest values occur in the eastern part (3,118 h in Sainshand; 2,906 h in Choibalsan) while lowest is in the northen part (2,794 h in Khovd). (Tsegmid, Sh, 1969 ).
B.Jambaajamts (1989) calculated that the sum radiation per square cm by a surface in different latitudes: 120 kcal/cm2 (5028 J/m2) on the 47N, 130 (5447 J/m2) on the 44N, 20 km2.
The spatial distribution of sunshine shows that its value is higher by 10–15 % in the southern part of Mongolia than that in the northern or near-border areas with Russia (Fig. 4.2). The highest values in the southern part of Mongolia can exceed 5866 MJ, while less than 5000 MJ lower values are typical in the western and northern regions. The amount of energy in the summer months is 5–6 times greater than that in the winter months.
The duration of sunshine varies between 1800 and 2200 h in the country. The highest values occur in the southern part of Mongolia. The relief can significantly diversify the spatial pattern; e.g., during winter periods, when the mountains emerge from the cold, foggy air that covers the basin, higher temperatures and higher sunshine duration are measured in the mountains than in the lowlands.
The annual horizontal solar irradiaion 60-70 ccal/?m2 (2,500-2,900 MJ/m2) in northern part (northward from 480N), and 85-90 kcal/cm2 (3,560-3,800 MJ/m2) in southern part (southward from 450N). It means around 5-6 kcal/cm2 (209-250 MJ/m2) per one degree of the lattute (Natsagdorj, L. & Gomboluudev, P, 2018). However, direct irradiation changes due to the seasonal variations of the solar radiation. The minimum solar direct irradiation in December 3.0-3.4 kcal/cm2 (125-129 MJ/m2) in southern part, while it is 0.9-2.0 kcal/cm2 ( 37.8-83.8 MJ/m2) in northern part of the country. The spatial distribution of sunshine shows that its values in the southern part can exceed 10 kcal/cm2 (419 MJ/m2) in June, while 8.0 kcal/cm2 (335 MJ/m2) lower values are typical in the northern and western part. However, it could be different depends on the cloud cover. For instance: In December, direct radiation in Murun is 1.2 kcal/cm2 (50.1MJ/m2), while in Ulaangom it is 0.9 ccal/?m2 (37.8 MJ/m2), where has more cloudiness, even these two stations situated at the same latitude almost (Natsagdorj, L. & Gomboluudev, P, 2018).
The highest amount of horizontal solar irradiation in June, 3-7 times greater than that in the winter months. The seasonal variation of the direct solar radiation is lower in the southern part than in the northern part of the country.
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