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Hypertension occurs when the blood pressure is between 120 and 129 mm Hg systolic and when it exceeds 80 mm Hg diastolic. The significant types of hypertension are primary and secondary hypertension. The precise cause of primary hypertension, also known as essential hypertension, is yet to be discovered. However, it is linked to race, genetics, diet, age, and lifestyle factors. Essential hypertension is prone to affect adults and develops in an individual with time. Secondary hypertension occasionally occurs suddenly, and its causes can be identified and overcome if treated. It commonly affects young people below the age of 30 years. The origins of secondary hypertension are; narrowing of blood vessels (arteries) that deliver blood to the kidney, hormones abnormality, adrenal gland conditions, thyroid defects, medication side effects such as stimulants, antidepressants, and birth control pills, sleep apnea and constriction of the aorta. The other subdivisions of hypertension include resistant hypertension, isolated hypertension, and malignant hypertension (Hecht, 2019).

The risk factors of hypertension include family history, obesity, age, race, stress, low potassium intakes, consumption of too much salt, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise, and use of tobacco. Some chronic diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea, and kidney conditions escalate high blood pressure risks. The primary recommended action to prevent high blood pressure is a change in lifestyle since it is the simplest and convenient way to avoid complications from hypertension. The shift in lifestyle includes regular exercise, avoiding alcohol, taking less salt, and avoiding stress. Treatment is advised if a person is exposed to high-risk factors such as diabetes (Hecht, 2019). Hypertension in adverse stages could lead to complications such as death. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain normal blood pressure by adopting a healthier lifestyle and sticking to medications.


Hecht, M. (2019, December 20). Types of hypertension. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/types-and-stages-of-hypertension

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