Grammar Lesson #3 WHEN DO I USE A COMMA?

Part 1

  1. Everything in the universe is made up of one thing, and that thing is light energy. 
  2. Light energy moves at different frequencies, but the human eye is only capable of perceiving light in a frequency range of about 400nm-700nm (from red to violet). 
  3. However, there are other animal species that are capable of perceiving even more frequencies and colors. For example, many birds and insects can see ultraviolet light, which is of a higher frequency than we can perceive.
  4. Regardless of the range of color and frequency vibration that we are able to see, the ability to perceive different colors simply means that we have an innate ability to easily detect the vibration that we need and want. 
  5. An easy way to help create your reality is through using colors that align with the vibrations of what you desire.
  6. The basic science of color introduces us to the basic science of energy and light because color is a property of light and light is a form of energy. 
  7. Energy have several properties of relevance to our discussion. On the one hand it can not be created or destroyed, and on the other hand, its always in motion, even when contained in something that is still.
  8. In the essay Six wonders of the human eyeHelen Cowan writes that, “Even when you think that you’re fixing your gaze on something, your eyes are darting around bringing a different view of the object into central vision.” 
  9. These eye movements are called “saccades” (French for “jerk”), and there are one of the fastest movements made by the human body, occurring several times each second (faster than a heartbeat).
  10. What is more; you make tears when you’re not crying,
  11. According to Dr Frederic Martini human tears not only prevent the eye from drying out; but also “reduce friction, remove debris, prevent bacterial infection, and provide nutrients and oxygen to the surface of the eye”.
  12. Furthermore, you blink 500 million times in a lifetime, and each eye is composed of 130 million light-sensitive cells. To put it in context, that’s a number double the population of the United Kingdom in each eye.
  13. Each eye is composed of 130 million light-sensitive cells.
  14. The cells are named according to their shape. Some 120 million of them is known as rods, and the others are known as cones. 
  15. Rods work best in dimly lit rooms,such as at twilight and in pale moonlight, while cones detect color. 
  16. Vitamin A is crucial for the workings of your rods.
  17. If your diet is lacking in vitamin A vision is affected, especially at night when rods are usually most responsive. 
  18. You can get vitamin A from beta-carotene in carrots, and that’s why carrots are said to be good for your eyes. Though its a myth that they let you see in total darkness.
  19. Practically everything we experience is made up of molecules, and they vary in size from simple pairs of atoms to complex organic structures. 
  20. In the 1920s; an American engineer investigated whether animals could live without bacteria. Hoping that a bacteria-free world would be a healthier one, James “Art” Reyniers made it his life’s work to produce environments where animals could be raised bacteria-free. The result was clear. It was possible, but many of Reyniers’s animals died. Hhowever, those that survived had to be fed on special food because bacteria in the gut help with digestion. You could exist with no bacteria, but without the help of the enzymes in your gut that bacteria produce, you would need to eat food that is more loaded with nutrients than a typical diet.

Part 2

  1. The universe is everything that exists. 
  2. All the stars, planets, rocks, dust, gas, and all the space in between them.
  3. Each star is a sun; many are far larger and hotter than our own Sun. 
  4. Stars are grouped into galaxies, huge spirals or whirlpools full of stars. 
  5. With telescopes, we can see billions of galaxies, and each one contains billions of stars. 
  6. One galaxy contains billions of stars. 
  7. The galaxies contain billions of stars. 
  8. A spiral galaxy similar to the Milky Way is called Andromeda.
  9. Our universe begins after the “Big Bang”.  
  10. Our universe starts with a massive, mind-bendingly huge explosion.
  11. The birth of a billion stars follow. 
  12. From this, our tiny planet emerges; a very special planet indeed.
  13. Earth is just one of eight planets in our solar system, and it lies halfway along one of the spiral arms of the Milky Way.
  14. Our Sun is one of several hundred billion stars grouped together in a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way. On a clear night, you can see one of its arms as a streak of white across the sky. 
  15. The brightest part is the center of the galaxy. There is the Milky Way. The Milky Way is just one of the billions of galaxies scattered through space,and all together, they form the universe.
  16. Earth is the only place in our solar system that sustains any known form of life. We haven’t found life anywhere else in the universe.
  17. Big stars burn out faster than small ones.
  18. A big star burns out faster than a small star. 
  19. Really massive stars burn out so fast that life doesn’t have time to develop on any of their planets.
  20. Small stars aren’t suitable either because they are prone to surface storms that can destroy life on nearby planets. 
  21. A small star isn’t suitable. 
  22. Our Sun is an ideally middle-sized star that will burn for about 10 billion years.
  23. The size of a planet controls the strength of its gravity.
  24. Jupiter is much larger than Earth, and its atmosphere is under a great deal of pressure. It would crush a spaceship like a paper cup. 
  25. On the other hand; Mars is just over half the size of Earth, and its thin atmosphere is under much less pressure. 
  26. If you stood on Mars, the water in your cells would evaporate and turning to gas. 
  27. Since you are 60 percent water, you would probably explode. 
  28. Earth has just enough gravity to hold on to its atmosphere. The atmosphere protects us from the Sun’s harmful rays, as it keeps us warm. 
  29. Earth is called a “Goldilocks planet,” a scientific term that refers to a planet that is neither too hot nor too cold, too big nor too small, too near its star nor too far away. To support life as we know it, it’s just right
  30. There is a narrow zone around each star that could support life because its temperatures allow water to be liquid.

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