Foundations of Scientific Principles for Adult Nursing

Learning objective 2

For optimum performance of body cells, the cells environment needs to allow the cell’s functioning and survival. In the human body, changes spontaneously and continually happen that interfere with the body environment; therefore, the body needs a mechanism to counter optimal performance changes. Homeostasis is a dynamic process that ensures the body environment’s stability by responding to changes through appropriate feedback. Some of the regulatory systems responsible for enhancing suitable conditions for cells include the nervous system, endocrine system and respiratory system. However, the systems may work together or simultaneously keep the body in optimum situations (Doherty & Foudy, 2006).  I will predominantly discuss the nervous system’s physiological principle in balancing and misbalancing conditions in response to psychological, physical and behavioural changes.

The changes that may interfere with the cells’ environment include Ph changes, body temperature, nutrients and waste products concentration, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, volume and pressure of fluids, salt concentration, blood pressure and glucose levels. Psychological conditions such as stress, depression, joy, and pain also change, which the nervous system keeps in check. External or internal factors can influence the environment of the body cells. Internal factors affect the inner body and include pain or blood pressure fluctuations, while external factors occur outside the body. Examples of external factors include temperature changes or noise (Lumen, n.d.).

The nervous system’s physiological mechanisms primarily respond to changes in the environment in two ways, namely, positive and negative feedback. In the negative feedback mechanism, the nervous system opposes the changes or reduces the change’s intensity to keep the body in suitable working conditions. For instance, when body temperatures exceed the normal ranges, and the sensors relay the information to the brain’s control centre, the nervous system responds with lower temperatures. On the other hand, positive feedback works by intensifying the changes in the environment. Positive feedback accelerates changes until an endpoint is attained where the body can perform optimally (Lumen, n.d.). An example of positive feedback is the child delivery process. Muscular contractions and changes increase as the mother approaches the delivery dates and stops after the baby’s expulsion.

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The nervous system consists of billions of specialised cells neurons that use electrical impulses and receive and convey information to the brain’s processing systems for appropriate action. The central nervous system constitutes the spinal cord and brain. Hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata are the main processors of physiological changes in the brain. The hypothalamus controls changes such as temperature, emotions, sexual desires, blood pressure, appetite and childbirth (Asarian & Geary, 2012). The hypothalamus is associated with prolactin, antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, gonadotropin, thyrotropin and corticotrophin. On the other hand, the medulla oblongata regulates adrenaline, which alters oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration.

The peripheral nervous system comprises nerve cells (neurons) that receive and senses changes in the environment and sends the data to the central nervous system. The spinal cord and the brain coordinate and process the information and trigger responses from effectors such as glands or muscles for appropriate action. Sensory neurons receive and detect stress and send it to the central nervous system, and motor neurons transfer the impulses to the proper response. Relay neurons convey impulses in the central nervous system (BBC, 2021).

In the maintenance of balance and imbalance in the body, different organ systems may work collectively to achieve homeostasis’s objectives. For instance, an increase in temperature may stimulate the hypothalamus to cause changes in the skin, such as releasing sweat or allowing more blood to pass on its surface. Likewise, the brain may cause an increase in respiratory action due to psychological distress (Vergara et al., n.d.).

An example of behavioural stress that may lead to a physiological response is when a hand is placed near a fire. The skin will detect a temperature change, and sensory neurons will send the signals to the relay neurons in the spinal cord. The brain will process the impulses as dangerous, and motor neurons transfer the message to the effectors (muscles). The muscles will contract to make an individual withdraw the hand from the danger (BBC, 2021).

An example of psychological stress that may stimulate a response is when an individual sees something fearsome. The eyes will receive the information, and the sensors will send the impulses to the brain. The medulla oblongata may stimulate the release of adrenaline after the interpretation of the message. The respiratory then intensifies its contraction and relaxation to increase oxygen supply and release more carbon dioxide. The blood then supplies more oxygen for the generation of energy. Therefore, a person may run in case of fear or maybe enthusiastic if he/she receives good news.

The nervous system plays a vital role in keeping the body at optimum performance. The nervous system ensures the survival of human beings by responding to changes in the environment.

Learning Objective 6

Pharmacology is a science of medicine that analyses how living things interact with drugs. Since medications alter the body’s functioning, pharmacologists examine the changes that occur and employ the concepts to improvise drugs. Pharmacologists also determine the appropriate administration of drugs and proper doses for optimum functioning of the body. The discipline studies the effects of drugs on people and tries to understand differences in consumers reaction to eliminate the side effects of drugs (British pharmacological society, 2021). The absorption, excretion and influence in metabolism are also further analysed and discussed in pharmacology. Additionally, pharmacology looks at the toxicity of drugs and the effect of drugs on bacteria, viruses and parasites. Pharmacology is fundamental in inventing drugs and improving their performance for optimum body operations (Aronson, 2010).

Pharmacology is closely related to the regulatory systems’ physiological principles since absorption of drugs involves the detection and transmission of signals to enable the body to react accordingly. Medications should be viable to receptors for their transmission to the appropriate parts of the body. Drugs are manufactured and processed from products such as minerals, plants, synthetic substances, microorganisms, animals, and genetic engineering technology (Abula et al., 2004, p. 2).

Nurses are always closer to patients and have the added advantage of understanding them more than any other help provider. Therefore, nurses play a significant role in medicine optimisation by ensuring that they produce maximum health benefits for consumers while minimising cost. Nurses provide that patients take the dosage prescription and are also obligated to understand patients’ biology to avoid allergic reactions. Nurses also enable patients to control their treatment by exposing them to the proper medication. Moreover, nurses administer medicine to patients appropriately to produce the ultimate health outcome. Nurses also reduce wastage of medicine since they ensure patients take the necessary treatment and at the right time (Keogh et al., 2013).

References

Abula, T., Rao, S. A., Mengistu, A., Worku, S., Legesse, E., & Aberra, M. 2004. Pharmocology. USAID, 1-203. [Online] Available from https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/health/ephti/library/lecture_notes/health_science_students/pharmacology.pdf  [Accessed 3 April 2021].

Aronson, J. K. 2010. A manifesto for clinical pharmacology from principles to practice. PubMed Central (PMC). [Online] Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909801/ [Accessed 3 April 2021].

Asarian, L., & Geary, N. 2012. Homeostasis. ScienceDirect.com | Science, health and medical journals, full text articles and books. [Online] Available from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/homeostasis[Accessed 3 April 2021].

BBC. 2021. Hormones and nerves – Coordination and control – The human endocrine system – AQA – GCSE biology (Single science) revision – AQA – BBC bitesize. BBC Bitesize. [Online] Available from https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/z8t47p3/revision/1[Accessed 3 April 2021].

BBC. 2021. Reflex arc – Coordination and control – The nervous system – AQA – GCSE biology (Single science) revision – AQA – BBC bitesize. BBC Bitesize. [Online] Available from https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zprxy4j/revision/3[Accessed 3 April 2021].

British pharmacological society. 2021. What is pharmacology? | British pharmacological society. British Pharmacological Society. [Online] Available from https://www.bps.ac.uk/about/about-pharmacology/what-is-pharmacology[Accessed 3 April 2021].

Doherty, B., & Foudy, C. 2006. Homeostasis – Part 1: Anatomy and physiology. Nursing Times. [Online] Available from https://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/respiratory-clinical-archive/homeostasis-part-1-anatomy-and-physiology-04-04-2006/[Accessed 3 April 2021].

Keogh, B., Cummings, J., & Ridge, K. 2013. Medicines Optimisation:Helping patients to make the most of medicines. Royal Pharmaceutical Society. [Online] Available from https://www.nhs.uk/about-the-nhs-website/professionals/healthandcareprofessionals/your-pages/documents/rps-medicines-optimisation.pdf[Accessed 3 April 2021].

Lumen. n.d.. Homeostasis | Boundless anatomy and physiology. Lumen Learning – Simple Book Production. [Online] Available from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/homeostasis/[Accessed 3 April 2021].

Vergara, R. C., Riveri, S. J., Luarte, A., Loccoz, C. M., Fuentes, R., Couve, A., & Maldonado, P. E. n.d.. The energy homeostasis principle: Neuronal energy regulation drives local network dynamics generating behavior. Frontiers. [Online] Available from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2019.00049/full[Accessed 3 April 2021].

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