Ethics Essay


Logical statements emerge from concepts of mathematics or facts and assumptions. A logically true statement is considered final and cannot be proved wrong. For instance, from mathematics the sum of 3+3 is 6, any answer contradicting to this will be automatically wrong because logically the answer can only be six and not any other form of solution. Also, inevitably the sun rises from the east and sets on the west, any argument different from this will be considered false.

Factual statements are based on information obtained from experiments and observations. Factual statements originate from the experiences and phenomenon in the world which are investigated and found to be true. For example, drug abuse causes mental problems is factual because medical experiments conducted show that indeed it interferes with individual sanity. The statement is factual only because of medical reports from tests and observation.

Normative statements, on the other hand, are based on an individual’s perspective of what is right or wrong. Experiments, observations or logic cannot determine the truth in normative statements. Conflicts are likely to arise in normative statements because there is no secure way of assessing truth in these assertions (Newton, 2013). Let’s consider a scenario where a young girl from a low-income family is raped, and abortion is an alternative. One would argue that the girl is too young; lacks funds to raise a child, and the father is absent; therefore, abortion is justified. On the contrary, another person would claim the child’s innocence and suggest ways to raise the child rather than abortion. This is a scenario of a normative case since there is no proof that abortion is wrong or right.


Newton, L. (2013). Ethical decision making: Introduction to cases and concepts in ethics. Springer.

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