Epigenetic control of normal developmental and physiological processes

The review starts by explaining the information contained in the DNA molecule. A clear contrast is made between genetic information and epigenetic information. The former involves changes in the genes carrying information while epigenetic information involves changes in mechanisms that impacts gene expression without affecting variations in the genes.  In the 1950’s epigenetics meant classification of all developmental events, which occurred between the fertilized zygote and the complex, mature organism. Today, epigenome refers to the collection of epigenetic processes that modulate gene expression patterns in cells. A discrepancy in the epigenetic is capable of contributing to pathogenesis. Pathogenic factors can result in a variety of changes in cellular composition. 

As a consequence of the diversity of human gene expression, the epigenome may fluctuate from cell type to cell type. The epigenome constitutes the second dimension of the human genomic sequence, whose role is to maintain cell-specific gene expression.  Cells expression is regulated through processes such as the organization of the chromosomal nuclear architecture and memory preservation of past transcriptional events. The epigenomic regulation systems can be subdivided into three systems namely: 

  • Chromatin architecture organization-based transcription activation (CAOTA) system    
  • Genomic imprinting-determined transcription regulation (GITR) system
  • Non-coding RNA-mediated regulation (NRR) system

The establishment and maintenance of epigenetic memory is essential for both CAOTA and GITRA systems. Epigenetic mechanisms are transmitted through cell division, which continues from one generation to another. The stability of these mechanisms depends on parental chromosome receiving and possessing the gametic imprint. The essay would have been much better if it expounded on the effects that epigenetic has on the diseases such as such diseases as diabetes mellitus type-I, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also recommendable that the essay would have briefed on a future forecast of epigenetics technology.

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