Criminology Paper

A criminal is a person who commits any unlawful activity that is not acceptable by a state. Crime committed out of various reasons such as greed, jealousy, for fun, to earn a livelihood among other reasons. A well know criminal whose reputation precedes him is one Pablo Emilio Escobar. Also known as the King of coke was a feared drug lord from Columbia. Till date, he is considered to be the most influential, rich and flagrant criminal when it comes to trafficking of cocaine.

  In the 1980’s he had power over a huge empire of drugs and was responsible for many murders that took place within. His drug business made him billions of dollars that he used in assassinating all that crossed him. He was able to build a personal empire of aircraft, mansions and even have an arm of hardened criminal soldiers. Escobar was born to Abel Escobar and Garivia in Colombia on December the year 1949. The father was a simple farmer whereas the mother was an elementary school tutor. Pablo began his criminal activities in stress while he was still a teenager. This criminal is known for his legacy of supplying American with cocaine and smuggling other goods.

One criminology theory that can be applied to Pablo Escobar is the Choice theory. Based on this theory individuals will decide to undertake a certain crime by assessing the viability of opportunities that stand before them. Criminals weigh the penalty of a crime versus its benefit and make up their decision from that point. The cost-benefit analysis characteristic mainly focuses on the idea that everyone has the choice to proceed with his or her actions (Cullen & Wilcox, 2010). It is mainly the type of punishment involved, which deters one from committing a crime.

When a criminal thinks about committing a crime but refrains from it because of the fear of being arrested this general deterrence. It occurs when an individual that has not yet been punished abstain from crime because of the punishment they might receive in the event of being caught. Specific deterrence comes into being when a criminal has just been punished and the fear of having another dosage of the punishment deters him or her from committing another crime. 

Under general deterrence, the threat of legal punishment inhibits illegal acts among persons who have not yet been punished. On the other hand in specific deterrence being punished again is the restraining factor among those who have ever being punished. Taking the case of Escobar he must have also analyzed the penalty of being arrested for cocaine trafficking and the benefits involved. And since he had never been arrested before the benefits out-did punishment involved considering that there were means of protecting himself from the authorities. 

Another criminology theory that can be applied to Pablo is the Conflict Theory. Crimes arise from the presence of disagreement between the different social classes in the society. Laws are enacted because of conflicts rather that out of a general accord. The elementary causes of crime emanate from the economic and   social forces operating within society (Krohn & Ward, 2015). Based on this criminology theory the criminal law and justice system operate in favor of the rich and powerful social influential, with resulting policies that are aimed at dictating the lifestyle of the poor. 

The fortunate are separated from the have-nots through the judiciary who would steal from each other. Therefore in a way, the less fortunate folks are neglected in the process of the legal rights. This situation has attributed to minor monetary street crimes being punished sternly whereas large-scale embezzlement is treated leniently. Pablo Escobar wanted to be a millionaire at a very tender age, this desire must have probably being brought about after observing how the society was. The poor were slaves of the laws enforced by the wealthy. Therefore Pablo decided to use all means possible in making sure that graduates to the social class of the few who counted.

The society has an obligation in maintaining a certain degree of stability in an individual’s life to make responsibilities clear and to give life to other that ruin criminal activity. It is evident that poverty has a significant impact on the likelihood of an individual becoming a criminal. The seed of crime is planted by the sense of lacking something essential and according to the social control theory, it is upon the society prevent such.

Social control theory takes into assumption that persons can foresee the advantages of crime. The whim to commit a crime is resisted as a result of the costs allied to such behavior. Social control theory assumes further that the principal cost of a crime is the disapproval of the people about whom the potential criminal cares (Cullen & Wilcox, 2010). In the event that the potential delinquent cares about no one as much, he will definitely commit the crime in question. The society was not in a position to rescue Pablo from his criminal activities. At a young age, he began trafficking drugs in order to make ends meet as he saw no hope on depending on his parents. He probably did not care that much about his parents or siblings; as a result, he saw no loss to them in indulging in crime.

In conclusion, although each criminology theory has its own explanation as to why people turn into criminals, they all overlap at some point. The objective of reducing chances of a crime occurring is shared by the theories.  In addition, these theories help us understand why people choose to be criminals. For instance from the case of Pablo we are to see various reasons that might have drove him into the cocaine trafficking business and with such awareness future repetition of such a case might be avoided.


Cullen, F. T., & Wilcox, P. (2010). Encyclopedia of criminological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Krohn, M., & Ward, J. T. (2015). Integrating Criminological Theories. The Handbook of Criminological Theory, 318-335.

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