Annotated Bibliography and Revised Thesis

This is a required and graded part of your research paper. If you do not hand in this assignment in a timely manner, I will not evaluate your final research paper.

For this assignment, you will submit an annotated list of at least four secondary sources that you are planning to use in your research paper. These sources should help you answer the questions you described in your research proposal. (The second page of this document includes a sample student response. Please make sure that your own work follows this model.)

Revised Thesis:  In addition, before the list of sources, you will state the thesis of your research paper, which should be a revised form of the thesis you included with your research proposal.  Although you are still at an early stage in the writing of your essay, you should make an attempt to formulate the main idea of the essay in one to three sentences. You will be able to revise and improve this thesis statement in the later stages of your research paper, but this assignment will help you understand the purpose of your essay.

Your Annotated Bibliography must include:

  • At least four secondary sources: Encyclopedia articles do not count as a source, but I recommend that you read an encyclopedia article on your topic to acquire background information. Remember: Although you may use any of the texts we have read in the course to help you write your paper, these do not count as one of your required sources.
  • Annotations: For each source, you must write a paragraph of 3-6 sentences in which you summarize the source and explain how the source will help you answer your research questions. For books, you should summarize only the chapter, section, or individual pages that are most relevant to your topic.
  • Proper MLA Citation Format: Each source must be listed according to MLA format. You can find this format on the library web site (, and there are additional examples and information in Gardner. Your bibliography should look like the samples provided, and you will add a descriptive paragraph (your annotation) after each source.

REMINDER: For your final essay project you will have to submit copies and links for your sources that you summarize, paraphrase, or quote in the research paper. I suggest that you download copies NOW so that you do not have trouble finding any of your sources when you hand in the first and final drafts of your paper.

Sample Student Assignment

Thesis Statement:

The opioid and prescription medication epidemic has been getting progressively worse over recent years, and the media and other outlets normalize this issue by pretending that it is not a problem even though the death rates are soaring, particularly among young people.

Annotated Bibliography

Kolodny, Andrew, et al. “The Prescription Opioid and Heroin Crisis: A Public Health Approach

to an Epidemic of Addiction.” Annual Review of Public Health 2015 (36.1): pp. 559-574.

This is a scholarly article that explains what may be the origins of the opioid epidemic. It talks about the efforts to address the opioid crisis have focused mainly on reducing nonmedical use of prescription medications. This article goes into detail about how doctors misprescribe these medications and how it has gotten way out of hand over the years. It describes interventions that people who misuse these drugs have been through, and preventative measures that can be taken.

Lopez, German. “The Opioid Epidemic, Explained.” Vox, 21 Dec. 2017,

This article compares the deaths from opioids compared to deaths from other types of incidents. In 2016, nearly 64,000 people died of drug overdoses in America with synthetic opioids (such as fentanyl), heroin, and common opioid painkillers (like Percocet and OxyContin) topping other causes of overdose, according to new data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s a higher death toll than guns, car crashes, and HIV/AIDS ever killed in one year in the US, and a higher death toll than all US military casualties in the Vietnam and Iraq wars combined. This article also gives some insight on how the opioid epidemic was also a key contributor to American life expectancy dropping for two years in a row in 2015 and 2016.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Opioid Overdose Crisis.” NIDA, 17 Apr. 2020,

This article describes how the opioid epidemic started. It provides different statistics like how 21-29% of people who are prescribed these opioids from their doctors misuse them and other interesting facts about the rise in the opioid crisis. They also discuss the different ways that we can prevent this from happening more often. This article also includes more sources that are credible about the crisis.

US Department of Health and Human Services. “What Is the U.S. Opioid Epidemic?”,

Https:// HHS,

This article explains what the Opioid epidemic actually is. It also presents the statistics of people that have overdosed. More than 750,000 people have died since 1999 from a drug overdose. Two out of three drug overdose deaths in 2018 were from opioids. Opioids are substances that work in the nervous system of the body or in specific receptors in the brain to reduce the intensity of pain. Overdose deaths involving opioids, including prescription opioids, heroin, and synthetic opioids (like fentanyl), have increased almost six times since 1999.

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